Author Topic: Ingredient Substitutions  (Read 2119 times)

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Offline chloe

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Ingredient Substitutions
« on: March 26, 2014, 03:47:29 PM »
Have you ever been all set to prepare a food and suddenly discovered you were missing a certain ingredient?
Sometimes it is inconvenient to go to the store to purchase the necessary ingredient.
It may be more convenient to try a substitute from supplies available in your kitchen.

The following chart gives substitutes that may be used to achieve a product that is similar to the original.
There are, however, a number of factors to consider when substituting ingredients.
 Each ingredient in a recipe has a specific function.
Substitution of one ingredient for another may alter the taste, color, moisture content or texture of the product.
For this reason, it is suggested that ingredient substitution be used in unexpected situations only.


Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

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Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #1 on: March 26, 2014, 03:48:31 PM »
Allspice          1 teaspoon     * 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon and 1/2 teaspoon
                                   ground cloves
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Apple pie spice   1 teaspoon     * 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon
                                   nutmeg and 1/8 teaspoon cardamom
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Arrowroot starch  1 teaspoon     * 1 tablespoon flour
                                 * 1 1/2 teaspoon cornstarch
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bay leaf          1 whole        * 1/4 teaspoon cracked bay leaves
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Beau monde        1 teaspoon     * 1 teaspoon seasoning salt
seasoning                        * 1/2 teaspoon table salt plus dash of
                                   garlic, onion and celery salts or
                                   powders
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dill plant,       3 heads        * 1 tablespoon dill seed
fresh or dried                     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Garlic            1 clove,       * 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder or 1/4
                  small            teaspoon instant minced garlic
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Garlic salt       3/4 teaspoon   * 1 medium size clove or 1/2 teaspoon
                                   minced fresh
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ginger            1/8 teaspoon,  * 1 tablespoon candied ginger rinsed in
                  powdered         water to remove sugar, finely cut
                                 * 1 tablespoon fresh ginger, grated
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Herbs, dried      1 teaspoon     * 1 tablespoon fresh, finely cut
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Herbs, fresh      1 tablespoon,  * 1 teaspoon dried herbs
                  finely cut     * 1/2 teaspoon ground herbs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Horseradish       1 tablespoon,  * 2 tablespoons bottled
                  fresh

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Parsley, dried    1 teaspoon     * 3 teaspoons fresh parsley, chopped
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Pumpkin pie       1 teaspoon     * 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon
                                   ginger, 1/8 teaspoon allspice and 1/8
                                   teaspoon nutmeg
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Peppers,          1 tablespoon,  * 3 tablespoons fresh green pepper,
green bell        dried            chopped
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Peppers,          1 tablespoon,  * 3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper,
red bell           dried           chopped
                                 * 2 tablespoons pimiento, chopped
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pimiento          2 tablespoons  * 1 tablespoon dried red bell peppers,
                  chopped          rehydrated
                                 * 3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper,
                                   chopped
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Onion             1 small        * 1/4 cup chopped, fresh onion
                                 * 1-1/3 teaspoons onion salt
                                 * 1 to 2 tablespoons minced onion
                                 * 1 teaspoon onion powder




Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

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Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #2 on: March 26, 2014, 03:49:34 PM »
Baking powder     1 teaspoon     * 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8
                                   teaspoon cream of tartar
                                 * 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup
                                   sour milk or buttermilk or yogurt
                                   (decrease liquid called for in recipe
                                   by 1/2 cup)               
                                 * 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2
                                   tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice used
                                   with sweet milk to make 1/2 cup
                                   (decrease liquid called for in recipe
                                   by 1/2 cup)
                                 * 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/4 to
                                   1/2 cup molasses (decrease liquid in
                                   recipe by 1 to 2 tablespoons)
                                 * 1/3 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2     
                                   teaspoon cream of tartar             

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cornstarch        1 tablespoon   * 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
(for thickening)                 * 4 to 6 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream of tartar   1/2 teaspoon   * 1 1/2 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar
--------------------------------------------------------------------------


Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

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Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #3 on: March 26, 2014, 04:27:46 PM »
Lemon             1 teaspoon     * 1/2 teaspoon vinegar
                  juice
                  1 medium       * 2 to 3 tablespoons lemon juice and 1
                                   to 2 teaspoons rind
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lemon peel,       1 teaspoon     * 1 to 2 teaspoons grated fresh lemon
dried                               peel
                                 * grated peel of 1 medium size lemon
                                 * 1/2 teaspoon lemon extract
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Orange            1 medium       * 6 to 8 tablespoons juice
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Orange peel,      1 tablespoon   * 2 to 3 tablespoons grated fresh orange
dried                              peel
                                 * Grated peel of 1 medium-size orange
                  2 teaspoons    * 1 teaspoon orange extract
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Orange peel,      1 medium       * 2 to 3 tablespoons grated fresh orange
fresh                              peel


Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

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Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #4 on: March 26, 2014, 04:30:21 PM »
Extracts          1 teaspoon     * 1/4 teaspoon oil of similar flavor

(example: mint    1/4 teaspoon   * 2 drops oil of similar flavor (oils
extract)                           won't evaporate at high temperatures)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
====================================================
Flavor-based oil  1/4 teaspoon   * 1 teaspoon extract of same flavor

(example: oil of  2 drops        * 1/4 teaspoon extract of same flavor
peppermint)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mustard, dry      1 teaspoon     * 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
                                 * 1/2 teaspoon mustard seeds
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mayonnaise (for   1 cup          * 1/2 cup yogurt and ? cup mayonnaise or Milk, buttermilk  1 cup          * 1 cup plain yogurt
--------------------------------------------------------------------------


Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

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Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #5 on: March 26, 2014, 04:31:06 PM »
Milk, buttermilk  1 cup          * 1 cup minus 1 tablespoon sweet milk
or sour                            plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice or
                                   vinegar (allow to stand 5 to 10
                                   minutes)
                                 * 1 cup sweet milk and 1 3/4 teaspoons
                                   cream of tartar
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, evaporated  If recipe      * 1 cup liquid whole milk
(whole or skim)   calls for 1/2
                  cup plus 1/2
                  cup water
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, evaporated  1 can (about   * Whip until smooth:
                  12 ounces)         1 cup nonfat dry milk
                                     1 3/4 cups warm water
                                     Keep refrigerated
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, skim        1 cup          * 4 to 5 tablespoons nonfat dry milk
                                   powder and enough water to make one
                                   cup, or follow manufacturer's
                                   directions
                  1/4 cup        * 4 teaspoons nonfat dry milk powder
                                   plus water to make 1/4 cup, or follow
                                   manufacturer's directions
                  1/3 cup        * 2 tablespoons nonfat dry milk powder
                                   plus water to make 1/3 cup, or follow
                                   manufacturer's directions
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, sweetened   1 can (about   * Heat the following ingredients until
condensed         1-1/3 cup)       sugar and butter are dissolved:
                                     1/3 cup and 2 tablespoons
                                     evaporated milk
                                     1 cup sugar
                                     3 tablespoons butter or margarine
                  1 cup          * Heat the following ingredients until
                                   sugar and butter are dissolved:
                                     1/3 cup evaporated milk
                                     3/4 cup sugar
                                     2 tablespoons butter or margarine
                                 * Add 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons dry milk
                                   powder to 1/2 cup warm water. Mix
                                   well. Add 3/4 cup sugar and stir until
                                   smooth.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, sweetened   To make about  * Combine 1 cup instant nonfat dry milk,
condensed         1 1/4 cups in    2/3 cup sugar, 1/3 cup boiling water
                  blender          and 3 tablespoons margarine. Blend
                                   until smooth. To thicken, let set in
                                   refrigerator for 24 hours.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, whole       1 cup          * 1 cup reconstituted nonfat dry milk
                                   plus 2 1/2 teaspoons butter or
                                   margarlne
                                 * 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup
                                   water                             
                                 * 1 cup buttermilk plus 1/2 teaspoon
                                   baking soda (for use in baking,
                                   decrease baking powder by 2
                                   teaspoons)
                                 * 4 tablespoons whole dry milk plus 1
                                   cup water or follow manufacturer's
                                   directions
                                 * 1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato
                                   water (in baking)
                                 * 1/4 cup nonfat dry milk, 7/8 cup
                                   water and 2 teaspoons butter or
                                   margarine
                                 * 1 cup water plus 1? teaspoons butter
                                   (in baking)
use in salads                      salad dressing
and salad                        * 1 cup salad dressing
dressings)                       * 1 cup sour cream
                                 * 1 cup yogurt
                                 * 1 cup cottage cheese pureed in a
                                   blender
--------------------------------------------------------------------------


Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

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Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #6 on: March 26, 2014, 04:31:36 PM »
Egg 1 whole      (3 tablespoons) * 3 tablespoons slightly beaten egg
                                 * 3 tablespoons plus 1 teaspoon frozen
                                   egg, thawed
                                 * 2 1/2 tablespoons sifted dry whole egg
                                   powder plus 2 1/2 tablespoons lukewarm
                                   water
                                 * 1/4 cup egg substitute
                                 * 1 egg white and 2 teaspoons oil
                                 * 2 egg whites
                                 * 2 yolks plus 1 tablespoon water
                                   (in cookies)
                                 * 2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings
                                   and similar mixtures)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Egg substitute    1 egg          * 2 egg whites. May add 1 to 3 teaspoons
                                   vegetable oil for each yolk omitted.
                                 * 1 egg white, 2 1/4 teaspoons nonfat
                                   dry milk powder, and 2 teaspoons
                                   vegetable oil (may store 1 week in
                                   refrigerator or freezer)
                                 * In cookies and cakes only -- use 2
                                   tablespoons water plus 1/2 teaspoon
                                   baking powder
                                 * In cookie and cake recipes that call
                                   for 2 or 3 eggs -- for each egg, use
                                   2 tablespoons flour, 1/2 tablespoon
                                   shortening, 1/2 teaspoon baking
                                   powder, 2 tablespoons liquid (use
                                   liquid called for in recipe)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Egg white         1 white        * 2 tablespoons frozen egg white, thawed
                 (2 tablespoons) * 2 teaspoons sifted dry egg white
                                   powder plus 2 tablespoons lukewarm
                                   water
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Egg yolk          1 yolk         * 2 tablespoons sifted dry egg yolk
                 (1 1/2            powder plus 2 teaspoons water
                  tablespoons)   * 1-1/3 tablespoons frozen egg yolk,
                                   thawed


Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

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Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #7 on: March 26, 2014, 04:33:11 PM »
Beef stock base,  2 teaspoons    * 1 beef bouillon cube
instant                               
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Beef stock base,  4 teaspoons    * 1 can (10 1/2 ounces) condensed,
instant           dissolved        undiluted beef bouillon or consumme'
                  in 1 1/4         
                  cups water 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     
Broth, beef or    1 cup          * 1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup
chicken                            boiling water
                                 * 1 teaspoon powdered broth base
                                   dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chicken stock     1 1/2          * 1 chicken bouillon cube
base, instant     teaspoons         
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chicken stock     1 tablespoon   * 1 cup canned or homemade chicken
base, instant     dissolved in     broth or stock
                  1 cup water       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------


Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

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Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #8 on: March 26, 2014, 04:34:01 PM »
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flour,            1 tablespoon   * 1/2 tablespoon cornstarch, potato
all-purpose                        starch, rice starch or arrowroot
(for thickening)                   starch
                                 * 1 tablespoon granular tapioca
                                 * 2 to 3 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca
                                 * 1 tablespoon waxy rice flour
                                 * 1 tablespoon waxy corn flour
                                 * 2 tablespoons browned flour
                                 * 1 1/2 tablespoons whole wheat flour
                                 * 1/2 tablespoon whole wheat flour plus
                                   1/2 tablespoon all-purpose flour
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flour,            1 cup sifted   The following flours require more
all-purpose                      leavening than wheat flour, so add
(Note: Speciality                2 1/2 teaspoons baking powder per cup of
flours added to                  flour. An even lighter product results
yeast bread                      when buttermilk plus 1/2 teaspoon baking
recipes will                     soda is substituted for each cup of milk
result in a                      in the recipe:
reduced volume                   
and a heavier                    * 1 1/4 cups rye flour
product)                         * 3/4 cup rice flour
                                 * 1 1/2 cups oat flour
                                 * 1 cup corn flour
                                 * 3/4 cup coarse cornmeal
                                 * 1 cup fine cornmeal
                                 * 5/8 cup potato starch flour
                                 * 1-1/8 cups cake flour
                                 * 1 1/2 cups bread crumbs
                                 * 1 cup rolled oats
                                 * 1 1/2 cups barley flour
                                 * 1 cup unsifted all-purpose flour
                                   minus 2 tablespoons
                                 * 1/3 cup cornmeal or soybean flour
                                   plus 2/3 cup all-purpose flour
                                 * 1/2 cup cornmeal, bran, rice flour,
                                   rye flour or whole wheat flour plus
                                   1/2 cup all-purpose flour
                                 * Substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4
                                   to 1/2 of white flour called for in a
                                   recipe
                                 * 1/4 cup soybean flour plus 3/4 cup
                                   all-purpose flour
                                 * 1/3 cup wheat germ plus 2/3 cup
                                   all-purpose flour
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flour, cake       1 cup sifted   * 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons sifted
                                   all-purpose flour
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flour, pastry     1 cup          * 7/8 cup all-purpose flour
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flour,            1 cup          * 1 cup minus 2 teaspoons all-purpose
self-rising                        flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking
                                   powder and ? teaspoon salt
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flour, whole      1 cup          * 1 cup white wheat flour
wheat                            * 1 cup graham flour
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bread crumbs,     1/3 cup        * 1 slice of bread
dry
Bread crumbs,     3/4 cup        * 1 slice bread
soft                               
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cracker crumbs    3/4 cup        * 1 cup bread crumbs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                               


Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

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Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #9 on: March 26, 2014, 04:34:36 PM »
Carob powder      If recipe      * 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate
                  calls for 3       
                  tablespoons         
                  carob powder       
                  plus 2             
                  tablespoons       
                  water             
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chocolate chips,  1 ounce        * 1 ounce sweet cooking chocolate
semisweet                           
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chocolate,        1-2/3 ounces   * 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus
semisweet                          4 teaspoons sugar
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chocolate,        6 ounce        * 2 squares unsweetened chocolate plus
semisweet         package          2 tablespoons shortening and 1/2 cup
pieces, melted                     sugar
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chocolate,        1 ounce or     * 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon
unsweetened       square           butter or margarine
                                 * 3 tablespoons carob powder plus 2
                                   tablespoons water
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cocoa             1/4 cup or     * 1 ounce (square) chocolate (decrease
                  4 tablespoons    fat called for in recipe by 1/2
                                   tablespoon)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coconut           1 tablespoon   * 1 1/2 tablespoons fresh, grated
                  grated, dry     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coconut Cream     1 cup          * 1 cup cream
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coconut Milk      1 cup          * 1 cup milk
--------------------------------------------------------------------------


Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

  • Administrator
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Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #10 on: March 26, 2014, 04:35:07 PM »
Corn Syrup        1 cup          * 1 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid (use
                                   whatever liquid is called for in the
                                   recipe)
                                 * 1 cup honey
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Honey             1 cup          * 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid
                                   (use liquid called for in recipe)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Maple sugar       1/2 cup        * 1 cup maple syrup
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maple sugar       1 tablespoon   * 1 tablespoon white granulated sugar
(grated and
packed)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Molasses          1 cup          * 3/4 cup sugar plus 2 teaspoons baking
                                   powder (increase liquid called for in
                                   recipe by 5 tablespoons and decrease
                                   baking soda by 1/2 teaspoon)
                                 * 3/4 cup sugar plus 1 1/4 teaspoons
                                   cream of tartar (increase liquid
                                   called for in recipe by 5 tablespoons)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------


Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

  • Administrator
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  • Posts: 9391
  • Gender: Female
Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #11 on: March 26, 2014, 04:35:39 PM »
Catsup            1 cup          * 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/2 cup sugar and
                                   2 tablespoons vinegar (for use in
                                   cooking)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chili sauce       1 cup          * 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown
                                   sugar, 2 tablespoons vinegar, 1/4
                                   teaspoon cinnamon, dash of ground
                                   cloves and dash of allspice


Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

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  • Posts: 9391
  • Gender: Female
Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #12 on: March 26, 2014, 04:36:15 PM »
Chives, finely    2 teaspoons    * 2 teaspoons finely chopped green onion
chopped                            tops
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mushrooms         1 pound fresh  * 3 ounces dried mushrooms
                                 * 6- or 8-ounce can
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mushrooms,        1 tablespoon   * 3 tablespoons whole dried mushrooms
powdered                         * 4 ounces fresh
                                 * 2 ounces canned


Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

  • Administrator
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  • Posts: 9391
  • Gender: Female
Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #13 on: March 26, 2014, 04:36:57 PM »
Cream cheese                     * Part skim milk ricotta cheese or lowfat
                                   cottage cheese beaten until smooth
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream,            1 cup          * 7/8 cup whole milk plus 1/2 tablespoon
half-and-half                      butter or margarine
                                 * 3 tablespoons oil plus milk to equal
                                   1 cup
                                 * 1 cup evaporated milk
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream, heavy      1 cup          * 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter or
(36 to 40% fat)                    margarine (for use in cooking and
                                   baking)
                                 * 2/3 cup buttermilk plus 1/3 cup oil
                                 * Evaporated skim milk or equal parts of
                                   part-skim milk ricotta cheese and
                                   nonfat yogurt beaten until smooth
                                   (this mixture cannot be heated because
                                   of separation)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream, light      1 cup          * 1 cup undiluted evaporated milk
(18 to 20% fat)                  * 14 tablespoons milk plus 3 tablespoons
                                   butter or margarine
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream, sour       1 cup          * 3 tablespoons butter plus 7/8 cup sour
(See Sour                          milk
cream, cultured)                 * 7/8 cup buttermilk plus 3 tablespoons
                                   butter
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream, whipped                   * Chill a 13 oz. can of evaporated milk
                                   for 12 hours. Add 1 teaspoon lemon
                                   juice. Whip until stiff.
                                 * Beat until stiff: 1/2 cup ice-cold
                                   water and 1/2 cup nonfat dry milk. Add
                                   1/2 cup sugar, slowly, while beating.
                                   Then add 2 tablespoons lemon juice and
                                   beat until mixed well.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream, whipping   1 cup          * 2 tablespoons lemon juice, 2
                                   tablespoons sugar, 1 cup evaporated
                                   milk
                                 * 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter (for
                                   cooking only)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------


Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.

Offline chloe

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  • Posts: 9391
  • Gender: Female
Re: Ingredient Substitutions
« Reply #14 on: March 26, 2014, 04:37:34 PM »
Macaroni          2 cups,        * 2 cups spaghetti, uncooked, (2 inch
(4 cups cooked)   uncooked         pieces)
                                 * 4 cups noodles, uncooked
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
=====================================
Marshmallows,     1 cup          * 10 large
miniature
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gelatine,         3-ounce        * 1 tablespoon plain gelatine plus 2
flavored          package          cups fruit juice
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Butter            1 cup          * 7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat plus 1/2
                                   teaspoon salt
                                 * 7/8 cup oil plus 1/2 teaspoon salt
                                 * 7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 teaspoon salt
                                 * 1 cup margarine
                                 * 7/8 cup oil
---------------------------------------------------------



Good friends are like stars...
        You don't always see them,
        but know they are always there.